The INPE-EM system (INPE – Emission Model) is a service of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE) that aims to make available annual estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to changes in land cover in Brazil in a spatial way explicit. The system provides annual emissions estimates for the Brazilian Amazon since 2012 and the Cerrado since 2019, both based on PRODES.
First Order estimates (which simplify the assumption that 100% of emissions occur at the time of change of use/coverage) and 2nd Order estimates (which seek to represent the gradual process of carbon release and absorption as it occurs) are made available. The 2nd Order emissions estimates show an attenuated response to oscillations in the deforestation rate (increases and decreases), as they carry the influence of historical emissions, that is, of the decomposition/burning processes of the remaining biomass from deforestation that occurred in the year’s previous ones. 2nd Order estimates more accurately represent studies related to the carbon cycle. 1st Order estimates are normally used to report emissions more simply and intuitively.