INPE-EM: Land cover changes greenhouse gases (GHG) emission estimate

The INPE-EM system (INPE – Emission Model) is a service of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE) that aims to make available annual estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to changes in land cover in Brazil in a spatial way explicit. The system provides annual emissions estimates for the Brazilian Amazon since 2012 and the Cerrado since 2019, both based on PRODES.

First Order estimates (which simplify the assumption that 100% of emissions occur at the time of change of use/coverage) and 2nd Order estimates (which seek to represent the gradual process of carbon release and absorption as it occurs) are made available. The 2nd Order emissions estimates show an attenuated response to oscillations in the deforestation rate (increases and decreases), as they carry the influence of historical emissions, that is, of the decomposition/burning processes of the remaining biomass from deforestation that occurred in the year’s previous ones. 2nd Order estimates more accurately represent studies related to the carbon cycle. 1st Order estimates are normally used to report emissions more simply and intuitively.

Net emissions estimates combine the emissions due to clear cutting process of the primary forest and the growth / cutting dynamics of the secondary vegetation. These results indicate the secondary vegetation growth influence in the carbon balance. Forest degradation estimates were also incorporated into the system in December 2020.

The information are provided aggregated by year and also in a spatially disaggregated way. The tables and maps are available for download, in excel and shapefile format. In addition to the annual CO2 estimates, INPE-EM also presents estimates of CH4, N2O, CO and NOx emissions.

For compatibility with official emissions estimates from the Brazilian Government, the system uses as a basis the biomass data used by National Communications for the UNFCC, as well as for purposes of emission reduction estimates (REDD+).